①Advertising has been among England’s biggest growth industries since the war, in terms of the ratio of money earnings to demonstrable achievement. Why all this fantastic expenditure?
② Perhaps the answer is that advertising saves the manufactures from having to think about the customer. At the stage of designing and developing a product, there is quite enough to think about without worrying over whether anybody will want to buy it. The designer is busy enough without adding customer appeal to all his other problems of man-hours and machine tolerances and stress factors. So they just go ahead and make the thing and leave it to the advertiser to find eleven ways of making it appeal to purchasers after they have finished it, by pretending that it confers (授予) status, or attracts love, or signifies manliness. If the advertising agency can do this authoritatively enough, the manufacturer is in clover (生活舒适).
③Other manufacturers find advertising saves them from changing their product. And manufacturers hate change. The ideal product is one which goes on unchanged for ever. If, therefore, for one reason or another, some alteration seems called for, how much better to change the image, the packet or the pitch made by the product, rather than go to all the inconvenience of changing the product itself.
④The advertising man has to combine the qualities of the three most authoritative professions: Church, Bar, and Medicine. The great skill required of our priests, most highly developed in missionaries but present, indeed mandatory, in all, is the skill of getting people to believe in and contribute money to something which can never be logically proved. At the Bar, an essential ability is that of presenting the most persuasive case you can to a jury of ordinary people, with emotional appeals masquerading as logical exposition: a case you do not necessarily have to believe in yourself, just one you have studiously avoided discovering to be false. As for Medicine, any doctor will confirm that a large part of his job is not clinical treatment but faith healing. His apparently scientific approach enables his patients to believe that he knows exactly what is wrong with them and exactly what they need to put them right, just as advertising does—“Run down? You need...” “No one will dance with you? A dab of... will make you popular”.
21. Advertising are appreciated by manufacturers because they .
22. The passage tells us that some manufacturers, instead of changing their product, would prefer to change its ______.
23. According to the passage, doctors are most successful when they are ______.
24. Advertising men dress people up in white coats because _____.
25. The advertisers’ attitude is based on the hope that consumers ______.